Popular programming languages
There are countless computer programming languages, but there are some that are more widely used than others. Here are three of the most popular computer programming languages:
HTML stands for “Hyper Text Markup Language” and is utilized for coding web pages. It marks elements of a document, like headings and paragraphs, and tells a computer how they should be displayed.
Java has been used since the beginning of the World Wide Web to improve websites and add interactive capabilities like buttons and app widgets. It is also commonly used for programming cell phones.
C Language works as a basic coding language and is widely used to make programs run faster. It remains a popular choice for video game developers who use C++ language as well since the two languages complement each other in terms of programming.
50 types of programming languages
If you’re considering a job in computer programming or another technology field, being familiar with these programming languages can help set you apart from other candidates. Here are 50 types of programming languages you can learn:
Functional languages use stored data to perform recursive functions, which execute a process and then repeat it to solve any errors that arise during programming. Examples include Agda, Cuneiform, PureScript and APL.
Machine languages are made up of binary code, which is a series 0s and 1s that symbolize text or instructions for a computer program. One example of a machine language is Fortran.
Assembly languages work in a similar way to machine languages by using short mnemonic codes to give the computer instructions. Examples include Lotus 1-2-3 and Turbo Pascal.
Logic programming languages
Logic programming languages add restrictions to statements made by developers that cause the computer to consider the possible outcomes of different actions. Examples include Prolog, ASP and Datalog.
Data-oriented languages offer different ways to search and edit entity-relationship tables. Examples include Clarion, Gremlin, WebDNA and Wolfram Language.
Companies use business-oriented languages to work with large quantities of data across a variety of different systems. Examples include SQL and COBOL.
Education-oriented languages can help to teach computer programming and coding to novices who are unfamiliar with the processes. Examples include BASIC, Logo and HyperTalk.
Object-oriented language identifies everything it encounters as objects that have internal and external data and then it performs based on moving these “objects” to where they need to be. Examples include Java, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby and Python.
Declarative languages tell a computer what needs to be done without including instructions for how to complete the task. This type of language can be classified as a logic programming or functional language, as they all help a computer to solve problems in programming. Examples include Prolog, Lisp, ML and Haskell.
Document formatting languages
Document formatting languages organize printed text and graphics, and some function similarly to a word processor. Examples include TeX, PostScript and SGML.
World Wide Web display languages
World Wide Web display languages are used to design web pages and provide them with the desired functions, such as page retrieval through links. Examples include HTML, XML and CGI.
Front end coding languages
Database programming languages
Database programming languages help to create databases and manipulate the way data is stored inside them. Examples include C++, COBOL, Java and Perl.
Rule-based languages implement rules once they are activated by certain conditions in a data set. Examples include AWK, CLIPS, Prolog and Wolfram Language.
Compiled languages have been translated by computer programs from one programming language to another and convert information directly to code, which streamlines the programming process. Examples include ActionScript, Ballerina, C++ and ALGOL.
Back end coding languages
Back end coding languages code program servers so that web pages appear and function correctly. Examples include Python, Java and Ruby.
System languages can complete tasks like memory management or task management when programming an entire system. Examples include Swift, Rust, C++ and Nim.
Algorithmic languages convey mathematical or symbolic computations and can use algebraic operations to convey information. Examples include Fortran, ALGOL, Lisp and C.
Command-line interface languages
Command-line interface languages use lines of text to send commands to computer programs. Examples include Batch, CLIST, TACL and 4DOS.
Computational languages declaratively communicate the logic and functions of a computer command. Examples include Wolfram Language, Gremlin, QML and Mercury.
Visual languages specify programs in two-dimensional ways through different types of graphic layouts. Examples include Grasshopper, GameMaker Language, XOD and ToonTalk.
XML, or Extensible Markup Language, encodes documents in a way that can be read and understood by both people and computers and exists across the internet. Examples include Apache Ant, MXML, ECMAScript for XML and XQuery.
Syntax handling languages
Syntax handling languages generate analyzers that convert character sequences to token sequences that have specified meanings for context-free grammar. Examples include ANTLR, lex, Prolog and JavaCC.
Little languages help to manage a specialized problem domain, such as text formatting, combinations and resource allocation. Examples include AWK, Comet, sed and SQL.
Metaprogramming languages write programs that write and edit other programs. Examples include C++, META II, Python and TREEMETA.
Esoteric languages test unorthodox methods of programming language design, such as using a fictional language as a basis for a program. Examples include Beatnik, INTERCAL, Piet and Whitespace.
Non-English-based programming languages take keywords from languages other than English to create commands. Examples include Chinese BASIC, Lexico, Rapira and ezhil.
Curly-bracket languages use curly brackets or brace characters to define statement blocks. Examples include AWK, Ballerina, C++ and ECMAScript.
Off-side rule languages
Off-side rule languages designate blocks of code based on their indentation. Examples include ISWIM, ABC, Python and Elixir.
Iterative languages are built around generators that solve smaller instances of a certain problem to inform how they can solve the original problem and generate a certain outcome. Examples include Aldor, Eiffel, Julia and Python.
Constraint programming languages
Constraint programming languages fall under declarative programming language and express relationships between their variables as constraints. Examples include MiniZinc, Oz and Kaleidoscope.
Numerical analysis languages
Numerical analysis languages are mainly used for technical computing. Examples include Wolfram Language, Analytica, Fortran and MATLAB.
Multiparadigm languages allow a program to use multiple programming styles to work at once in a single program and combine constructs from different programming languages. Examples include ALF, C++, ECMAScript and Python.
Imperative languages convey information to computers through serial orders and large amounts of detail. They might also fall under other classifications as multiparadigm programming languages. Examples include MATLAB, ECMAScript, Perl and Python.
Dataflow languages use a representation of the exchange of data to specify programs and process streams of data. Examples include Analytica, Lucid, Oz and Ballerina.
Authoring languages help to create interactive computer programs, such as tutorials or websites. Examples include Lasso, PILOT, TUTOR and Authorware.
Concurrent languages pass messages and offer language constructs for executing multiple processes at the same time. Examples include Ada, ChucK, Java and Oz.
Array languages use scalars to apply operations to vectors, matrices and other high-dimensional arrays. Examples include Analytica, BASIC, MATLAB and Fortran 90.
Extension languages are embedded into other programs to use their features in extension scripts. Examples include JavaScipt, Perl, Squirrel and CAL.
Hardware description languages
Hardware description languages describe the design, structure and operation of electronic and digital logic circuits. Examples include Verilog, VHDL, Java and Ruby.
Macro languages can be for application or textual substitution to change one source code file into another, often in order to preprocess source code. Examples include C++, m4 and ML/I.
Shading languages use real-time rendering and offline rendering to create images, such as 3D computer graphics. Examples include AGAL, PSSL and RenderMan Shading Language.
Reflective languages allow programs to examine and edit their high-level structure. Examples include Cobra, ECMAScript, Prolog and Ruby.
Fourth-generation languages are high-level languages built around database systems and are often used for managing databases and generating reports. Examples include ABAP, FOCUS, OpenEdge ABL and DataFlex.
Decision table languages
Decision table languages clarify the logic of a program before writing it in another programming language. Examples include Filetab and FORTAB.
Interactive mode languages
Interactive mode languages allow for expressions to be entered and show their evaluation right away. Examples include BASIC, ECMAScript, Wolfram Language and Python.